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Specifier's Guide to Durable Concrete

Product Code: EB221
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This publication is an instructional guide and basic reference for those responsible for writing and implementing concrete specifications. This reference covers the basic concepts of concrete technology as it relates to durability, and is intended to be a companion and supplement to Design and Control of Concrete Mixtures. It provides sufficient information to allow the practitioner to select materials and mix design parameters to achieve durable concrete in a variety of environments. It also warns the user when expert help is recommended. Maintenance requirements to assure long-term performance are provided and several case studies provide real-world examples.

Table of Contents
1 INTRODUCTION
2 DETERIORATION MECHANISMS

2.1 Exposure Conditions
2.2 Chemical Mechanisms
2.2.1 External sulfate attack
2.2.2 Internal sulfate attack
2.2.3 Delayed ettringite formation
2.2.4 Salt crystallization
2.2.5 Corrosion of reinforcement
2.2.6 Carbon dioxide
2.2.7 Aggressive waters and other chemicals
2.2.8 Seawater
2.2.9 Alkali-silica reaction
2.3 Physical Mechanisms
2.3.1 Mechanical loading
2.3.2 Abrasion and erosion
2.3.3 Fatigue
2.3.4 Freeze-thaw and deicer scaling
2.3.5 D-cracking
2.3.6 Dimensional stability
3 SELECTING AND SPECIFYING MATERIALS
3.1 Availability of Materials
3.2 Local Conditions and Practices
3.3 Selecting Alternative Materials
3.4 Materials
3.5 Mix Proportions
4 CONSTRUCTION
4.1 Subbase Support and Drainage
4.2 Formwork and Reinforcing Steel
4.3 Batching and Mixing
4.4 Transporting Concrete
4.5 Placing and Consolidation
4.6 Finishing
4.7 Curing
4.8 The Real World
5 MAINTENANCE AND MONITORING
5.1 The Need for Maintenance and Monitoring
5.2 Service Conditions
5.3 Ease of Access
5.4 Desired Service Life
6 DISCUSSION AND EXAMPLES
6.1 Bridge Deck Subject to Deicing Salts
6.2 Pavement Subject to Alkali-Silica Reaction
6.3 Bridge Exposed to Seawater
6.4 Industrial Slab/Channel Exposed to Chemicals
6.5 Multistoried Educational Facility
REFERENCES
APPENDIX
INDEX